Infographic on Yukon's history of land claims and self-government

Mapping the way:

Yukon First Nation Self-Government

Yukon is one of Canada’s three northern territories, and is home to about 37,000 residents.

There are 14 First Nations in Yukon. Approximately 23% of Yukon’s population is Aboriginal, with most belonging to one of the 14 Yukon First Nations.

Photo: Government of Yukon
First Nation people have lived in Yukon for thousands of years.
The Indian Act becomes law and sets out certain Government of Canada obligations, and regulates who is defined as an Indian and the management of Indian band land, monies and resources.

The Klondike Gold Rush brings thousands of gold seekers to Yukon.


Photo: MacBride Museum
of Yukon History collection,

Ta’an Kwäch’än Chief Jim Boss recognizes the effect newly arrived settlers have on Yukon First Nations. He writes to the Government of Canada requesting compensation for his people’s loss of land and hunting grounds.


Together Today for Our Children Tomorrow

Photo: Yukon Archives.
Judy Gingell collection, 98/74, 1

Yukon land claim negotiations begin when Elijah Smith and Yukon First Nation leaders present a ground-breaking document, Together Today for our Children Tomorrow, to then Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau.

The Council for Yukon Indians is created to negotiate land claims on behalf of all Yukon First Nation people.


Umbrella Final Agreement (UFA)

The Council for Yukon Indians, the Government of Canada and the Government of Yukon sign the Umbrella Final Agreement. This was the first step in Yukon’s modern land claim settlement process, and towards First Nation self-government.

8.6% of Yukon’s land mass is identified to become Settlement Land to be owned by individual Yukon First Nations

Framework for negotiating individual First Nation Final (land claim) Agreements and Self-Government Agreements

Boards and Committees to provide recommendations to government

1993 to 2005

Using the UFA as a framework, 11 Yukon First Nations negotiate and sign final agreements with the Government of Canada and the Government of Yukon.

Final Agreements (land claim)

Modern day treaties that define the ownership and management of resources and Settlement Land for individual First Nations, rights within their traditional territory, and financial compensation.

Land use and ownership

Resource use and ownership

Financial and compensation

Self-Government Agreements

Define the powers Self-Governing First Nations have to make laws and decisions that affect their Settlement Land and citizens.

Internal operations

Management of rights and benefits

Programs and services


Yukon First Nations are at the forefront of Aboriginal land claims and self-government in Canada. 11 of 14 First Nations have settled their land claims and are self-governing.

This represents approximately half of all such agreements in Canada.

The Indian Act continues to apply to 3 Yukon First Nations.

The Indian Act no longer applies to Self-Governing Yukon First Nations, and they have powers similar to those of a Canadian province or territory.

Lands and Resources


Programs and Services

Heritage and Culture

Intergovernmental Relations and Fiscal Arrangements

Economic Development

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